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Nova Scotia Geology


The Pre-Cambrian Period
Rocks from the northern tip of Cape Breton Island are roughly one point four billion years old. Rocks in other areas of Cape Breton Island are between 750 million to 1 billion years old. These rocks were formed in volcanically active islands, which eventually combined to become Cape Breton Island.

Where was Avalonia?
Cape Breton Island Nova Scotia started to be originally formed in parts of northern Europe during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. Rocks created during this time form northern Nova Scotia from Cape D’or to Canso and are delineated by the Cobequid-Chedabucto fault created by a collision between Avalonia and Meguma during the Acadian Orogeny. Fossils from the shallow seas of this time can be found in the Arisaig area and along the Northumberland shore.

Nova Scotia Geology


Africa’s Meguma
This part of Nova Scotia was created as part of a continental shelf and turbidities (underwater landslides) of Meguma. This part of Nova Scotia was originally formed in what is the modern day continent of Africa.  The Meguma terrane in places was made up of very dense deposits of accumulated sediments. During the continental collision (the Silurian age) between Avalonia & Meguma, the region was heavily deformed into immense geological folds roughly 380 million years ago through processes of melting and fracturing. These folds run southwest to northeast and are referred to this as the South Mountain batholith. The granite rocks which run from Musquodobit to Yarmouth are outcrop examples of this time. These can be found in  Blue Rocks, Point Pleasant Park in Halifax and throughout the Yarmouth area.  During the collision massive mountains were created, remnants of which form part of today’s Appalachian mountain range. Through geological processes of uplift and erosion, much of the rock was eroded during a period lasting roughly10 million years.

The Carboniferous Period
During the start of the Carboniferous period, Nova Scotia had a climate much like middle east gulf states, creating and repeatedly evaporating an inland sea.  Evidence of this period can be found in evaporites in the areas Windsor, Truro and Pugwash with it’s salt mine as well as area gypsum and limestone deposits. The later part of the Carboniferous period was much wetter with dense coverings of plants & trees.  Extensive fossilized forests from Joggins area on the Bay of Fundy are evident. There is a provincial museum located in the town to explore this period of time. 
During the Permian period, Nova Scotia was located in Pangea near the equator. A time when massive periods of erosion formed red sands/ clays deposits, which can be found in the Northumberland Strait area.

The Triassic Period
Continuing into the Triassic period the province was covered with desert sand dunes, the remnants of which can be seen at the sand cliffs near Blomidon. During the later Triassic, the super continent Pangea  began to split apart. The Bay of Fundy  is one of the modern day features of this colossal movement in plate tectonics. The large basalt lava flows found in the  Bay of Fundy around North Mountain and Five Islands are remnants of this time. 
Much of present day Nova Scotia during in the Jurassic was found on the shores of the newly created Atlantic ocean basin.  Sedimentation from this time also contributed to the oil & gas deposits found offshore today.

The Jurassic Period
From the Jurassic onwards, most of the geology of Nova Scotia moved offshore with the sedimentation into the newly formed Atlantic Ocean basin. This is where oil and gas was originally formed by dead/decaying animal life on the shores of the new ocean.

Glaciations
Repeated periods of glaciations beginning approximately 100000 years ago haved repeatedly scraped clean much of the provinces geological record. The last of these ending around 13000 years ago. Grinding striations evidence of miles high glaciers can be found in rocks all over the province.  Thick deposits of glacial till/dumlins can be seen all along the eastern shore of Nova Scotia.  An example of this evidence can be seen in Halifax’s Citadel Hill.

Rocks of Nova Scotia
 

Amphibolite
Anhydrite
Basalt Amygdaloidal
Basalt Vesicular
Chert
Coal
Conglomerate
Diabase
Dolomite
Gabbro
Gneiss
Granite (Gray)
Granite (Red)
Granodiorite
Graywacke Quartzite
Hornfels
Leucogranite
Lignite

 
Limestone, Micritic
Limestone, Pesolitic
Marble
Monzogranite
Mudstone
Orthoquartzite
Pegmatite
Peridotite
Rhyolite
Rhyolitic Tuff
Sandstone, copper bearing
Sandstone, gray (Arkose)
Sandstone, hematitic
Sandstone, red (Arkose)
Schist, (andalusite/staurolite)
Shale
Slate
Syenite
Tonalite

 
Minerals of Nova Scotia
Antimony
Jamesonite
Kermesite
Stibnite
Valentinite

Arsenic
Arsenopyrite
Tennantite

 
Beryllium
Beryl

 
Bismuth
Bismuthinite

 
Clay - Earths
Kaolinite
Ochre
Smectite

 
Cobalt
Cobaltite
Erythrite

 
Copper
Azurite
Bornite
Chalcocite
Chalcopyrite
Chrysocolla
Covellite
Cubanite
Cuprite
Digenite
Malacite
Tennantite
Tetrahedrite

 
Iron
Ankerite
Bog iron
Fe-Oxide
Goethite
Hematite
Iron Oxide
Limonite
Magnetite
Pyrrhotite
Siderite
 
Lead
Boulangerite
Cerussite
Galena
Pyromorphite

 
Gold
Arsenopyrite
Sylvanite
 
Graphite
 
Lithium
Lepidolite
Lithiophilite
Spodumene
Triphylite

 
Magnesium
Brucite
Dolomite
Magnesite

 
Manganese
Pyrolusite
Manganite
Psilomelane
Braunite
Hausmannite
Rhodochrosite
Rhondonite
Spessartine
Managanese Oxide
Knebelite
Fayalite

 
Molybdenum
Molybdenite
Powellite

Nickel
Pentlandite
Niccolite

 
Phosphorous
Apatite
Fluorapatite

 
Silver
Proustite
Sylvanite
 
Sulfur
Pyrite
Tin
Cassiterite

Titanium
Ilmenite
Rutile

 
Tungsten
Hubnerite
Scheelite
Tungstite
Wolframite

 
Uranium & Rare Earth
Autunite
Bassetite
Becquerelite
Celestite
Clarkeite
Columbite
Davidite
Monazite
Niobium 
Pitchblende
Schoepite
Tantalite
Thorite
Torbernite
Uraninite
Zippeite

Zeolites
Analcime
Clinoptilolite
Epistilbite
Heulandite
Mesolite
Mordenite
Natrolite
Scolecite
Stilbite
Thomsonite
Zeolite

 
Zinc
Hemimorphite
Hydrozincite
Sphalerite

 
Industrial
Anhydrite
Barite
Calcite
Diatomite
Dolomitic Limestone
Gypsum
Halite
Salt
Selenite
Wollastonite

 
Other
Agate
Amethyst
Andalusite
Biotite
Cordierite
Chalcedony 
Epidote
Feldspar
Garnet
Gahnite
Hornblende
Jasper
Quartz
Marcasite
Smokey Quartz
Topaz
Tourmaline
Argentite
Bitumen
Chlorite
Djurleite
Dumortienite
Durangite
Fillowite
Fluorite
Germanite
Gustavite
Hessite
Joseite
Mawsonite
Meneghinite
Mercury
Microlite
Morinite
Muscovite
Pearceite
Pinakiolite
Platinum
Polydymite
Pyrophanite
Reinerite
Sillimanite
Stannite
Tapiolite
Tellurides
Tridymite

Catalog Spotlight


Golden Flame Agate Block

Golden Flame Agate Block

Q - Golden Flame Agate Block
Found near Cape Split, NS

Size - 1.45 kg
     W - 6 inch,    H - 31/2 inches,      D - 21/4 inches

Price - $ 500.00


These are blocks I have on hand and can be cut to price on request.

PRODUCT ID: 1313




Concentric Agate Pendant

Concentric Agate Pendant

Concentric Agate Pendant
Found Lobster Hole, NS
Sterling Silver findings
Size - Display Box is 21/2" - 11/2"
Price  - $100.00

PRODUCT ID: 1405




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Rob's Nova Scotia Rockhounding, Gems, Minerals, Lapidary and Jewelry Shop, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada